What is dietary Tryptophan and how can it help you lose weight and reduce anxiety?
It is one of the 8 essential amino acids our bodies require to function correctly. It is found naturally in varying degrees within food we eat, such as red meat, milk, eggs, turkey, bananas and chocolate, etc.
How does Tryptophan work to produce benefits for our bodies that could promote natural weight loss, reduce anxiety, increase happiness, remove depression, and promote good sleep? Could it be possible this essential amino acid supplemented within a diet and known as L-Tryptophan could also help with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) for you and your children?
The answers will surprise, anger and shock many of you about the health benefits our pharmaceutical industries don’t want you to fully realize. This is because the prescription industry is a billion (s) dollar industries that do not want to give up its prescription turf!
Ageless MirrorAthlete has all the consumer information you need and want now – live life to the fullest today!
Let’s first cover a bit of history. Back in 1991 the US government banned the dietary supplement L-Tryptophan because it was linked to a large outbreak of a deadly disease that killed 38 people in a 1989 study. After 10 years had passed without incident of use in Europe, the US loosened its marketing restriction on the substance in 2001. Like anything else, if misused any product may cause ill-health conditions. Like many competitive industries, and most specifically our pharmaceutical industries back in 1989, they took full advantage of this disaster and profited in the market place by denouncing L-Tryptophan supplementation and created a whole slew of potentially dangerous pharmaceuticals to mimic the benefits of this essential amino acid.
As you will read below, there are still risks of using L-Tryptophan if not used correctly. But I believe the pharmaceutical cocktail mixes our doctors now prescribe to you and your children have greater risk to health than this natural occurring supplement found in a balanced diet. So instead of this industry improving a safe version of this supplement, it appears it was more profitable to create a whole lot of other products to achieve the same result at greater expense with increased health risk.
How does this amino acid work in our bodies to promote health benefits?
Our bodies need serotonin and melatonin neurotransmitters which are bio-brain chemicals that allow proper function of our physiology. Our bodies do not manufacture these neurotransmitters without this amino acid in the diet. That’s what essential means… our body can’t produce this amino acid on its own, and it has to be obtained through the diet.
This is important why? Because without enough of this essential amino acid – any one of us stand a good chance of suffering from one, or any combination of ill-health condition of varying degree… such as, migraines, low energy, sleepless nights, improper weight regulation, obesity, depression, anxiety and hyperactivity.
If your diet is predominately low protein-high carbohydrate, you are at greater risk of ill-health. When dietary balance is one of high sugar-fat and low protein you reduce the uptake of essential nutrients needed to sustain balanced body chemicals and good health.
Fortunately, more consumers today are educated on proper use and benefits of L-Tryptophan. It is making a big comeback in the mainstream weight loss, anti-anxiety/depression and ADD marketplace.
As you can imagine there is big opposition to this movement from the pharmaceutical industry because there is much profit to be lost once consumers wean off unnecessary pharmaceuticals.
I’m not saying all man-made products are without merit. However, all too often, our physicians and psychiatrists are too quick to prescribe a pill when the answer to the problem could be very simple – a poor diet, or need to simply supplement the diet with an essential amino acid to stimulate the production of the necessary neurotransmitter chemical.
Can supplementing the diet with L-Tryptophan help us regulate and reduce weight?
Science shows this supplement can greatly reduce our cravings for sweets and carbohydrates.
When dieting our serotonin levels appear to decrease which creates a carbohydrate binging and cravings effect.
When our serotonin levels remain low there is a direct correlation with weight gain and obesity. We know this binging and craving effect as the Yo-Yo effect.
There are known side effects of taking L-Tryptophan if proper dosages and impure quality grade are not considered. Unlike Tryptophan extracted from the foods in our diet, there appears to be no health risk. But like anything else we put in our bodies, if you consume too much with frequency, a negative to no benefit effect can result making the body ill.
Here is a list of possible side effects when misusing, or using L-Tryptophan: Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome (EMS), or serotonin syndrome.
Symptoms include severe muscle pain, fatigue, and nerve pain, hair loss, rash, dry thickened skin, or skin changes. High eosinophil levels are found in the blood when supplementation has gone wrong. Also when recommended dosages are disregarded, excess toxic waste in the body can impact the brain bringing on psychotic symptoms. This may include confusion, seeing, or hearing things, fast heartbeat, fever, sweating, diarrhea, difficulty walking. Allergic reactions may include: Rash, hives, itching, swelling of mouth/throat, wheezing, or breathing difficulty. Science still cannot tell us if EMS is the result of impure or specific brand L-tryptophan that had contaminants. But for best results, it’s best to ensure a quality pharmaceutical grade for safe use.
If L-Tryptophan is supplemented within the right dosages, the scientific data shows the brain will manufacture balanced serotonin and melatonin neurotransmitters promoting a cheerful mood, assist in weight reduction, relieve anxiety, reduce migraine, reduce hyperactivity, reduce depression and promote healthy sleep patterns. Sounds like the same benefits you’d receive from a doctor’s prescription, does it not? Because this supplement also has many potential risks like prescriptions; it would be prudent to work with your primary care physician if interested in supplementing the diet with L-Tryptophan.
This essential acid is also responsible for manufacturing the neurotransmitter Melatonin [resulting in healthy sleep patterns]. Melatonin can be purchased over-the-counter in many retail stores.
I’ve used melatonin after working grave yard shifts and can tell you it works very well to induce sleep. But if you’re getting enough tryptophan from a balanced diet – sleepless nights may become less frequent. Of course, bodies are all different in ability to process Tryptophan and manufacture serotonin and melatonin, so these dietary truths and resulting effects will vary and affect each individual differently.
If you’d been advised to reduce the cholesterol in your diet, this may likely lead to a reduction of this essential amino acid. I have not supplemented my diet with L-Tryptophan, but would do so If I felt I couldn’t get this essential amino acid from the foods I eat daily.
If you or your child suffer from ADD, obesity, anxiety, depression and insomnia, consider balanced diet and/or supplement with natural Trpytophan, or a high quality L-Trpytophan prescribed by a physician.
Understand there are literally thousands of Internet links and library resources on this topic. There is much to be interpreted and derived from the data I found outside of the two links listed below. I see the positive benefits of balanced diet and supplementation if needed. The pharmaceutical and psychiatric community does not share a similar enthusiasm over the benefits of supplementation.
Research the Internet and read up on diet Tryptophan versus supplement L-Tryptophan and how it may be your silver bullet to weaning off of pharmaceuticals and promoting a good health to meet your fit healthy and well-being goals.
Author: Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, USA Medical Services Officer, CPT, RET. 2010-20 Copyright. All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Publishing @: www.mirrorathlete.org, Sign up for your Free eNewsletter.
Although your favorite fitness guru or celebrity may be the picture of health and you want to look just like them… Keep this in mind, they make a lot of money selling fitness products and services they don’t necessarily use; and may actually cause you to gain weight rather than lose it. Which may be just the opposite of a desired result you hope to achieve.
Regardless of exercise equipment and dietary products that guarantees weight loss by these professionals – The odds are not in your favor these programs will work long term for you. Why? Unless you have a customized fitness program relevant and specifically designed for your weight loss expectations, weight gain may be the result.
Relevant fitness programming should include individual lifestyle and cultural assessments that include: behavioral habits, medical condition/history, genetics, body type… fitness goals and expectation. For example, do you want to be body fat lean, increase muscle mass, or strength; improve cardio and/or muscular endurance and flexibility? The aforementioned assessments will help define, relate and apply a fitness program that’s right and will work for you.
For those whose fitness goal is to lose body fat – science shows us how exercise can add on pounds if other lifestyle factors are not considered within the programming process especially as we age. But for this exercise we’ll specifically focus on exercise and fuel source to burn more body fat weight.
It is interesting to note, regardless of the billions of dollars invested within the fitness industry our nations population is becoming fatter. So we are either becoming more sedentary, sick with disease, exercising incorrectly and/or our dietary and addictive habits – which also influence bad behavior.
Which is it? I say a combination of all the above. And this reality has a lot to do with not understanding the human anatomy and physiology and marketplace fitness and diet gimmicks that promise to fix us. In my opinion these health illiteracy issues should be addressed within our K-12 education system. If this occurred, future generations would learn to value a healthier lifestyle – which would help reduce the obesity and connected disease problems now plaguing the nation.
With that being said consider the following statistics.
45 million Americans now belong to health clubs, up from 23 million in 1993. We spend some $19 billion a year on gym memberships. One major study illustrates – The Minnesota Heart Survey found more of us say we exercise. From 1980 to 2000, 47% of respondents exercised regularly and then these figures increased to 57%, ending the 20 year survey. Even with 45 million people today using fitness centers obesity figures increased during this period. The Federal government’s definition of obesity classifies 1/3 of all Americans as obese. Those that participated in the survey admitted after they exercise, their hungrier and eat more. This is not to discount the notion that those who may not participate in gym activities may weigh more otherwise.
Let’s look at a significant study that specifically addresses the compensation effect on body after exercise and what this really means for your weight management program.
In general, for weight loss, exercise is pretty useless, says Eric Ravussin, chair in diabetes and metabolism at Louisiana State University, a prominent exercise researcher. Although exercise does burn calories, it also makes us hungrier. Exercise, in other words, isn’t necessarily helping us lose weight. It may even be making it harder.
The compensation Problem “ The PLoS (Public Library of Science) published a remarkable study supervised by a colleague of Ravussin’s Dr. Timothy Church. Four groups totaling 464 overweight women who didn’t regularly exercise were selected for this study. Women in 3 of the groups worked with a personal trainer for 6 months; Group 1 exercised – 72 minutes/wk, Group 2 exercised- 136 minutes/wk and Group 3 exercised – 194 minutes/week. Although the study did not specify the exercise routines, one gets the notion exercises were balanced between aerobic and anaerobic activity with a personal assigned trainer.
The women in the 4th cluster did not change their lifestyle activities, but did fill out a monthly health questionnaire. The results were surprising. All groups of women lost weight, even the control group. It is most likely the control group through the use of monthly questionnaires learned more about their health and thereby modified their diets by eating fewer donuts, muffins, Starbucks coffee, for example. Some of the women in each group actually gained weight, some up to 10 pounds. Church calls this the compensation effect. Whether exercise made them hungry, or they wanted to reward themselves. Most of the women who exercised ate more than they did before they started the experiment!
Church states, we all need to move toward proper weight control, but stressing and depleting the body’s muscles in short bursts using stressful exercise is not necessarily the best way to loss body weight. Also the brain may feel greater entitlement to eat fast foods after we’ve exerted most of our high intensity energy at the gym. Instead, energy would have been better served by increasing daily activities like walking, healthy food shopping, preparing wholesome meals, gardening, a balanced mix using gym activities, walking, biking, etc.
[Quote excerpts posted above, Published by Time Magazine, August 17, 2009, Why Exercise Won’t Make you Thin, by John Cloud]
Exercise Science shows us anaerobic activity during weight lifting activities increases muscle mass with less stimulation of the fat burning metabolism. Muscle mass increases do occur when muscle bulking exercise out-paces aerobic fat burning exercise. The goal of burning more body fat weight requires a greater commitment to daily aerobic exercise activity within the low-medium intensity effort. So on a scale of 1-10 effort, if you exercise within a perceived physical exertion of ~4-7, you burn more body fat during aerobic exercise.
Optimizing weight loss results while toning the body requires a relevant fitness training program that will work for you. For example, if you find an aerobic exercise program you enjoy participating in daily, the odds are you’ll experience sustainable weight loss success.
For nearly anyone who wants to lose more body fat weight without experiencing extreme hunger spikes, a low-medium intensity aerobic activity such as daily walking, jogging or biking and hiking will help achieve the objective. This is because our aerobic metabolism prefers burning fat fuel during low-intensity, long duration exercise. During high-intensity exercise, the body prefers burning carbohydrates. The carbohydrates present a limited fuel storage source compared to stored body fat. Once carbohydrate fuel is spent through high-intensity exercise – the body feels hungry.
Regardless of exercise program chosen,
Having a balanced and nutritious diet in place prior to starting an exercise program is important to achieve the weight loss results you desire.
If your not sure how to custom design a fitness and nutrition program to achieve a natural weight loss objective – might I suggest investing in a professional fitness trainer or fit healthy lifestyle consultant with a degree in Exercise Science/physiology.
Once the encompassing being [mind, body and spirit] achieves a sustainable fit healthy lifestyle balance of diet and daily exercise… achieving any fitness goal is possible. Including loss of unhealthy body weight that has a direct connection with illness and disease.
Author: Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, ARNG, CPT, RET. 2018 Copyright. All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Inc., www.mirrorathlete.org, Sign up for your Free eNewsletter.
One of the first articles I wrote in November 2007 was inspired by a network news and publications article titled “Is Cancer in Your Tub?” What caught my attention were two glycol ether solvents used in everyday household, food and hygiene products. Also a key ingredient used in anti-freeze. Well I knew I didn’t want to drink or eat anti-freeze, so this caught my eye.
The thing I didn’t put into perspective back then was how consumer products were made and the impact they had on our health. Then I began asking questions like, why are unnatural and unnecessary chemicals added to our consumer products.
For example, why would an anti-freeze ingredient be in our home cleaners, hygiene and food products? “Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol or Propylene Glycol (PG) commonly used in paints and cleaners. These solvents typically have a higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower-molecular weight ethers and alcohols” [Wikipedia 2016].
“Ethylene glycol are still used in anti-freeze preparation, household, automotive cleaners, laundry cleaners, etc. Propylene glycol is also used in many of the same consumer products, such as home cleaners, hair, cosmetics, creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, toothpaste, pet foods, deodorants, etc.” (GoodGuide 2011). The list of products containing both glycol ethers is long.
Propylene glycol is also used as a food stabilizer in many processed foods as I’m now more familiar. And the FDA stands by their PG approval-to-market SAFE for human consumption like tens of thousands of other consumer chemicals. “The Food and Drug Administration has classified Propylene Glycol as “generally recognized as safe,” which means that it is acceptable for use in flavorings, drugs, and cosmetics, and as a direct food additive. According to the World Health Organization, the acceptable dietary intake of propylene glycol is 25 mg of propylene glycol for every kilogram (kg) of body weight” (ATSDR 2015).
“The unique qualities of PG is it provides unique inherent properties with regard to holding/attracting both water- and oil-based substances. In food, it is used to retain food color pigments and provide for homogeneous distribution within the mixture.”
It is also used as a “solvent and carrier for flavor and color in food and beverage manufacturing processes, for drinks, biscuits, cakes, sweets. ‘Thickener, clarifier and stabilizer in food and beverage such as beer, salad dressings or baking mixtures” (PO/PG 2016).
PG is also used as the main liquid component of e-cigarettes. For example, “PG exposure per puff of the Ruyan® e-cigarette. The cartridge of the Ruyan® e-cigarette contains approximately 1g [or 1000mg’s] of PG, of which 0.9 g is extractable from the pad. The concentration of PG in the mouth from one drag of the Ruyan® e-cigarette (900 mg per cartridge, 300 puffs = 3mg) is 3 mg per mouthful.”
It should also be noted within the report there is an Inhalational Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs). “No MRLs for acute- or chronic-duration inhalation exposure to propylene glycol were derived because data are insufficient. And this report also highlights Carcinogenicity. Stating “There is no evidence that PG is a carcinogen.”
But a SAFE use contradiction is also apparent within the same report. “MRLs of acute- or chronic duration inhalation data are insufficient (Laugesen 2008). Or to better clarify and understand the meaning of this statement, “absent of long-term risk data on healthOR “No Evidence for lack of long term data.”
To better relate to the FDA approval process, think about it this way.
Most FDA approvals are based on animal studies of relatively short duration. Whereas the data is extrapolated to make relative to human metabolism, weight, environment, habits, dosage, frequency, per capita… etc. One last point to make, we are humans, not rodents. So one must ask, how relevant are these studies to human DNA and disease? And how much pressure is there to release and approve a new product to market? And once released don’t industries have something to loose should an approved SAFE chemical be recalled from the marketplace? The answers to these questions are economically and politically by design and connected. The short of it is, It’s all about special interest power, control and money!
To date, I was curious to see if GP was removed, banned or listed as a health risk on any consumer product. Of course I wasn’t surprised to find anything of the kind. However glycol ethers may be the least of consumer product toxin worries.
Prior to reading that November 2007 publication, consumer safety advocates warned the world years earlier of carcinogenic household items. For instance, on February 23 a “1998 CBS’s morning talk show, This Morning reported the findings of a study from the US Department of Health and Human Services’ National Toxicology Program that sent shock waves throughout the cosmetics and personal care products industries.”
Fast forward: the moment of truth, our everyday household items have carcinogenic toxins as exposed by various laboratory controlled studies. They “confirm serious health issues with long term use of our FDA Qualified “SAFE” products! (Young 2011).” Shocker? Not at all. Simply look at the billions of dollars industries spend and profits made. Changing this economic course would be an act of God.]
During 2007 I also procured brochures from author Debra Lynn Dadd, “Please Protect Yourself from Household Toxics. I handed them out to clients for consumer safety information and audit of household products.
I recommended my clients audit and remove toxic home products and go green. In the process I advised them to keep diaries of certain medical symptoms which had abated after removal of certain consumer products after reading Dadd’s article.
She stated, “While certain people may be more sensitive than others, and some chemical(s) may bring on reactions only after many years of repeated exposure, I discovered household cleaning and bathing chemicals may bring on reactions only after many years of repeated exposure.”
Many of the home use product(s) that increased certain health risks listed in the brochure were cancer, birth defects, genetic changes, heart disease. Literally any symptom imaginable both physical and psychological could be linked to a common household product.
“Scientist admit these toxic chemicals can lodge in our endocrine system contributing to thyroid problems, diabetes, weight gain, and infertility. At greatest risk are fetuses, children, the elderly, and those who are already ill, but these chemicals are threatening the health of everyone, every day” (Barry 2013).
I also cited an AARP Bulletin from May 2008, Vol.49 No. 4, titled “Hazards at Home,” within that original 2007 article by Reed Karaim. Making similar statements as Debra Lynn Dadd. Karaim followed suit, “older people are more likely to have conditions – such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes. Adding to the collective demographic concern; older people are more like infants and children in their ability to fend off toxic assaults says Sandra Steingraber, the author of Living Downstream: “An Ecologist Looks at Cancer and the Environment.”
Within the same Bulletin a statement of stern warning is made over the use of home “Cleaners – Chemicals to avoid in cleaners, says McRandle (Paul McRandle, Deputy Editor at the National Geographic Green Guide), “run from ammonia, which is known to trigger asthma, elements in chlorine bleach, which is a lung irritant and will kill you if you swallow it, to things like glycol ethers, which are used to dissolve grime and dirt, and can cause nerve damage” (Karaim 2008).
PG is still listed safe by the FDA. However, I’ve no doubt science will prove the long-term PG health risk effects through e-cig smoker data. By studying habits of consumption, dose, toxicity and patients presenting similar cause and effect symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and disease connections, and discovery commonalities will occur over time.
The most disheartening and overwhelming reality is there are more chemicals used in foods and household products than ever before. Including expanded use of glycol ethers in foods. Also “Of the more than 80,000 chemicals currently used in the United States, most haven’t been adequately tested for their effects on human health” (NRDC 2016).
It appears most likely disease is linked to a cocktail of multiple consumer products, not just one. “Chemicals found in household products may be causing significant increases in cancers, diabetes, obesity and falling fertility, the European Environment Agency has warned. ‘In recent decades, there has been a significant growth in many human diseases and disorders including breast and prostate cancer, male infertility and diabetes. ‘Many scientists think that this growth is connected to the ‘rising levels of exposure’ to mixtures of some chemicals in widespread use” (Smith 2012).
“Some of the most pervasive chemicals are used in plastic products, and are known as endocrine disruptors. Convenience food products are bagged, bottled and plastic lined canned containers.”
“On February 19, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a report co-produced with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), titled: State of the Science of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.” Concern over the increase of chemical use in convenience foods, household and personal use products.
My takeaway and interpretation of past and current trends, scientific studies and consumer health risk and industrial data; these chemicals are destroying or mutating DNA within cellular structures of endocrine [hormone] and neurological function leading to serious and chronic disease.
“The report suggests a ban of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be needed to protect the health of future generations. ‘Health risks include: Non-descended testes in young males, breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, developmental effects on the nervous system in children, attention-deficit hyperactivity in children, thyroid cancer” (Mercola 2013).
“In some ways, our ancestors had it easy. Because they didn’t have chemically treated food and chemically enhanced kitchenware, their diets and cooking practices exposed them to fewer toxic hazards” (Breast Cancer Fund 2016).
Unfortunately Big-Ag, food processors and manufactures see a huge demand for convenience products with chemicals that make our foods smell, and taste and look more appetizing with long storage life. Including cheap and toxic convenient household and hygiene products. We’re addicted to all of them. As long as consumer convenience demand and profits are high and long term health risk is not connected to an FDA approved SAFE chemicals the environmental toxin uptake and increase of insidious disease won’t be in decline anytime soon.
Nothing has changed much after years of health risk warnings from consumer safety advocates, epidemiologists and independent lab studies, etc. Unnecessary food chemicals are used in our consumer products and are on the rise… so is disease.
The big winners are Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Big-Ag and Health Care industries. To include a plethora of consumer product and processor manufactures. Why do I list Health care services and Big-Pharm industries?
Treating acute and chronic disease is big business. Cures are not.
If it’s not about profits, what is it? I’d say the answer is 2-fold. Customers need and want lower convenience cost products. And industries are more than happy to continue providing cheap consumer product that meet demand and rake in huge profits at the expense of our health.
Until consumer demand changes toward healthier products there are things you can do to reduce unhealthy foods, drink, household cleaners and environmental toxins.
What can you do to protect your family?
Don’t give plastic toys to small children unless marked BPA or Phthalates free. “On October 15, 2007, California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law AB 1108 (also known as the California Toxic Toys Bill), making California the first state in the country to ban the use of phthalates from children’s products” (West 2016).
2. Eat less processed and convenience foods and consume more whole foods.
3. Purchase organic green home cleaners, cosmetics and personal hygiene products.
4. Wear PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) e.g. gloves, mask, boots, hoodie, pants, long sleeve shirts, apron when using non-green cleaning products.
5. Read food, home cleaning products and hygiene labels – if you can’t pronounce the ingredients, it’s most likely a chemical preservative, additive, stabilizer, dye, solvent, etc., of varying toxic quality. Go Green and Organic as often as possible and available.
6. Don’t consume the same drinks and foods every day, especially convenience and fast foods.
7. Consume plenty of fruits, vegetable and water.
8. Infrequently purchase water, juice, sodas and foods stored in plastics and cans. Glass is the best container to store foods and drinks.
9. Check dates of frozen foods and use within a 30 day window.
10. Vent and circulate fresh outdoor air throughout the home by leaving windows cracked ¼ open. Clean HVAC systems and ductwork per manufacturer recommendation.
11. Become a conscientious consumer safety advocate and practitioner and family educator of green/natural products.
12. Become a voice and vote for safe consumer products. Use your 1st Amendment rights to petition government and special interests to win voter-consumer choice. Be an advocate, or support to ban, or remove certain toxic ingredients from consumer goods and services. Or call for label laws that inform shoppers of toxic ingredients known to cause cancer and other chronic disease.
If consumers don’t demand the marketplace change; then realize… cost and convenience has greater value to a majority – than do long term health risk concerns and realities. With this continued reality it should be no surprise when the next generations does not value healthy lifestyle…. but instead succumbs to disease and sustains the increasing health care costs.
We have no one to blame but ourselves.
Marc T. Woodard, MBA, BS Exercise Science, ARNG, CPT, RET. 2016 Copyright. All rights reserved, Mirror Athlete Inc., www.mirrorathlete.org, Sign up for your free monthly newsletter.
ATSDR. “Public Health Statement for Propylene Glycol.” ATSDR. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 21 Jan. 2015. Web. 20 May 2016.
Barry, R. M. “Please…Protect Yourself from Household Toxics Pamphlet by Debra Lynn Dadd.” Melaleuca Cleaning Products. RM Barry Publications, 2005-13. Web. 20 May 2016.
Breast Cancer Fund. “Chemicals in Food.” Breast Cancer Fund. Breast Cancer Fund, n.d. Web. 20 May 2016.
GoodGuide. “What Kinds of Consumer Products May Contain This Chemical?” ETHYLENE GLYCOL — Consumer Products. GoodGuide, 2011. Web. 20 May 2016.
Karaim, Reed. “Hazards at Home.” AARP Bulletin Today. AARP, May 2008. Web. 20 May 2016.
Laugesen, Murray. Safety Report on the RuyanÂ® E-cigarette Cartridge and Inhaled Aerosol. Rep. Christchurch, New Zealand: Health New Zealand, 2008. Print.
Mercola, Dr. Joseph. “Common Household Chemicals Linked to Human Disease.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 8 July 2013. Web. 20 May 2016.